Diabetes Insipidus vs Diabetes Mellitus: Know the Difference

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus are two different conditions, even though their names sound incredibly similar. While the former is due to insulin resistance, the second is vasopressin insufficiency. Compared to Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus occurs more frequently. As a result, the two are diagnosed and treated differently. Read the list below carefully to know more about the differences between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

Difference between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus:

Diabetes insipidus is a problem of the kidneys that causes excessive urine and a low blood volume. In contrast, diabetes mellitus is a condition of the pancreas that causes high blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus can cause significant health issues if untreated, although insipidus is a moderate condition.

Defining Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus

Both diabetes mellitus (DM) & diabetes insipidus (DI) represent distinct medical conditions, despite sharing the word “diabetes” as the first word of their names. These two diseases may share certain similarities, but apart from that, they are unrelated.

The name ‘diabetes’ means passing through or siphoning, indicating that the kidneys generate an excessive urine volume. The word “Mellitus” is a Latin word used for sweet. In Latin, the word “insipidus” signifies tastelessness. Diabetes was once diagnosed by tasting urine. Diabetic Mellitus is identified if the urine has a sweet taste, while diabetes insipidus is identified if the urine has no taste.

Cause and Categorization

Diabetes is caused by insulin insufficiency. Diabetes insipidus results from insufficient ADH secretion or renal insensitivity to ADH.

Typical forms of DM include:

  • Type 1 diabetes is caused by inadequate insulin secretion due to the loss of beta cells.
  • Type 2 diabetes is induced by insulin resistance target cell sensitivity.
  • Gestational diabetes may develop during pregnancy.

Major categories of DI include:

  • ADH deficiency causes central diabetes insipidus.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is induced by kidneys not responsive to ADH due to a genetic abnormality in aquaporin valves or ADH receptors.
  • Dipsogenic DI can be caused by inflammation, infection, surgery, or some drugs.
  • Gestational diabetes is a condition that develops in pregnant women.

Symptoms

Both conditions have several signs and symptoms, including a greater thirst and urination frequency. But each has a different cause. For example, in diabetes mellitus, an increase in thirst is caused by an abnormally high blood glucose level, while in DI, it is caused by an abnormally high rate of fluid loss. In addition, when compared to DI, DM patients urinate significantly less frequently.

Dilute urine and nocturia (frequent urinating during the night) are two other symptoms of DI.

Diagnosis

Fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels are used in nursing diagnosis for diabetes mellitus because they more accurately reflect the disease’s impact on the body. The normal range for FBS is between 70 and 100 mg/dl. Tests for glycated hemoglobin or A1C can also be used to diagnose the condition. The level of A1c should be considered normal is between 4% and 5.6%.

Diagnosing diabetes insipidus requires a blood test to determine salt levels or a urinalysis. In addition, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and a fluid-deprivation test may be used.

Treatment

DI and DM are both conditions that cannot be cured but can be treated successfully. Different types of DI require different treatments. Patients with mild DI are typically recommended to increase their water intake. The intake of a low-salt diet and enough fluids is typically recommended for those who have been diagnosed with this condition. Patients with DI are given intravenous treatments containing dextrose. Drugs such as desmopressin (a synthetic hormone), chlorpropamide, and thiazide diuretics are commonly used to treat central DI. The treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus typically involves treating the underlying cause. Diuretics are also an option.

Lifestyle changes like eating healthily, losing weight, keeping track of glucose levels, regular exercise, etc., are alternatives for treatment. Insulin therapy is employed to treat type 1 diabetes. Insulin’s intensity of action can be divided into different categories: short, intermediate, long, and fast. Oral hypoglycemic medicines such as metformin, repaglinide, rosiglitazone, and voglibose treat type 2 diabetes.

Precautions:

Diabetes Insipidus precautions include the following:

  • Take precautions to avoid dehydration during physical effort or hot weather. Make sure you always have access to water to drink.
  • Doctors may recommend a low-sodium diet.
  • Take prescription drugs as directed.

Diabetes Mellitus precautions include the following:

  • Limit your alcohol consumption
  • Stop smoking
  • Control your cholesterol levels and your blood pressure.
  • Make sure your vaccinations are up to date.
  • Make regular appointments with your doctor.
  • Eye exams should be done regularly.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Keep an eye on your feet since untreated cuts and blisters can cause dangerous diseases.
  • Sleep well
  • Follow a meal plan that limits how much you eat.
  • If you are using insulin or medicine, you should not skip any doses.

Conclusion

The difference between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus would be that Diabetes Mellitus is caused by insulin resistance, while Diabetes Insipidus happens when the body’s vasopressin doesn’t work correctly. Living with hypertension or any other chronic disease necessitates many activities: checking a patient’s condition, nursing diagnosis for diabetes mellitus, taking medications, and maintaining a consistent health consciousness.