Watch out for the various points comparing “C++ and Java”, the most popular coding languages.
C++ and Java both are object-oriented programming languages. Yet, both languages differ from each other in many ways. C++ is derived from C and has the features of both procedural and object-oriented programming languages. C++ was designed for application and System development. Java is built upon a virtual machine that is very secure and highly portable. It is grouped with a comprehensive library to provide support for the abstraction of the existing platform. Let’s go through the various points to compare these popular coding languages.
C++ is one of the favorite programming languages of software engineering buffs. These programming languages are ideal for system programmers. It is relatively fast and stable and provides users with a ready-to-use library called standard template library. STL contains algorithms, structures, and arithmetic operations. C++ remains to be one of the best programming languages to solve problems of audio-visual processing or twitch game development. Java is a leading programming language that is used to create server-side frameworks for video games and smartphone apps. It is the central framework for creating android applications, which makes it a top preference for several programmers. Java is recognized for its portability across multiple platforms, starting from mainframe data centers to smartphones. Currently, there are over 3 million applications built with Java language.
C++ was designed for systems and applications programming. It was an extension of the C programming language. Java was designed and created as an interpreter for printing systems but later extended as a support network computing. It was designed to be easy to use and accessible to a broader audience. C++ was influenced to develop C99, Java, JS++, Lua, Perl, PHP, Python, Rust, Seed7, etc languages. Java was influenced to develop BeanShell, C#, Clojure, Groovy, Hack, J#, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, etc languages.
Like most high-level programming languages, Java supports garbage collection for automated memory management. In C++, you have to manage memory manually with the help of designated operators and pointers.
C++ supports various types of inheritances including single and multiple inheritances.
Although problems are arising from multiple inheritances, C++ uses the virtual keyword to resolve the problems. Java supports only single inheritance. Effects of multiple inheritances can be achieved using the interfaces in Java.
Root Hierarchy and Relationships
There is no root hierarchy in C++ as it is a hybrid language that supports procedural and object-oriented programming. However, Java is a single root hierarchy as it is completely object-oriented programming. In C++, there is no particular relationship between file names and class names. This allows C++ to have several classes with any file name, and the file name does not need to match the class names. But in Java, a close relationship between the two is enforced, so the name of the class with the source code should be the same as the file name.
Java is a memory-safe language, which means if you attempt to assign values outside of the given array parameters, the programmer receives an error. C++ is much more flexible, but this comes at a price. C++ will allow the programmer to assign values outside of the allocated memory resources, but this can later cause bugs and serious crashes during run-time.
C++ is a better option for system-level programming since it offers direct calls to libraries, while Java does not allow it. In Java, however, developers can call the libraries using Java Native Access or Java Native Interface. Features based on object-oriented language and procedural language distinguish C++ from other languages. On the other hand, Java’s automatic garbage collection is its distinguishing feature.
Java was built to be platform-independent by design. As long as the target machine has the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed, it will be able to compile Java into bytecode that can be run in a Java Runtime Environment (JRE). C++ is not generally considered portable because it lacks this standard implementation. Typically C++ source code must be compiled on every platform, making it platform-dependent.